<p>The round, columned temple vowed by Q. Lutatius Catulus to ‘this day’s Fortune’, τὴν Tύχην τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης, on 30 June 101 B.C., during a battle at Vercellae against the Cimbri (Plut., <i>Mar.</i> 26.2); it was dedicated on the anniversary of the conflict sometime before 87 B.C. (Degrassi, <i>Inscr. Ital.</i> 13.2, 488). The <i>fasti Allifani</i> locate the temple <i>in Campo</i> (FORTVNAE HVIVSCE [D]IEI IN CAMPO; Degrassi, <i>Inscr. Ital.</i> 13.2, 179, 488). Corroboration comes from Varro, who describes the ‘Catulan temple’, <i>aedes Catuli</i>, as a ‘columned tholos’, <i>tholos columnatus</i> (<i>Rust.</i> 3.5.12-13). This temple must have stood near the *Villa Publica, since Varro’s description is part of a ‘conversation’ held in the latter building, itself located ‘on the edge of the Campus [Martius]’ (<i>Rust.</i> 3.1.2, 3.2.1-4). This description accords well with the <i>tholos</i> temple located in the *“Area Sacra” in Largo Argentina, commonly known as Temple B, which was built in the first quarter of the 1st c. B.C. (Coarelli; Ziolkowski; Gros, reflecting the <i>communis opinio</i>).</p><p>One of the four known temples in the sacral area near Largo Argentina, Temple B is the latest dedication and the only one with a firm identification. The original temple had a circular <i>cella</i> surrounded by a ring of 18 stuccoed tufa columns with travertine bases and capitals (diam. 9.3 m). The façade was marked by a shallow porch, flanked by two long bases (<i>podia</i>) for the display of statues (6.66 x 2.10 m). Traces of a 3rd-c. B.C. <i>cappellaccio</i> wall, probably the <i>temenos</i> wall marking the boundary between Temples A and C, were found underneath Temple B and suggest that Catulus took near-equal amounts of consecrated space from Temples A and C to build his new monument; this encroachment was masked when he installed an expansive tufa pavement, which unified the sacral area (s.v. “Area Sacra”: Largo Argentina).</p><p>In the mid-1st c. B.C. the temple was extensively renovated: the podium was enlarged (by a layer of rubble fill faced with thin peperino slabs), the old <i>cella</i> wall was removed, and new tufa walls were built between the columns to create a pseudo-monopteros (diam. 15.5 m). Inside the new <i>cella</i>, a base for a colossal statue was set up. The head of an immense acrolithic statue (H. 8 m) depicting Fortuna was unearthed between Temples B and C in 1929 (now in the Palazzo dei Conservatori; Nash I, 150). This sculptural find offers further support for the identification of Temple B as that of Fortuna Huiusce Diei (Gros 269). The <i>podia</i> flanking the façade stairway were well suited for the display of statuary, and Pliny records 13 statues ‘<i>ad aedem Fortunae Huiusce Diei</i>’ (<i>NH</i> 34.54, 34.60); many of these were dedicated by Catulus, though some were donated by an Aemilius Paulus (<i>NH</i> 34.54; probably a member of the Lepidus branch of the Aemilii, living <i>c</i>. 100-50 B.C., see Richardson 156).</p><p>The temple was not modified again until after the fire of A.D. 80, when the fire-damaged tufa walls and column shafts of the <i>cella</i> were covered by a layer of brick; this renovation did not alter the temple’s plan, thus the Severan Marble Plan preserves a fairly accurate image of the original temple (Rodríguez Almeida, <i>Forma</i> pl. 28, frag. 37a).</p>