<p>Joint temple to Ceres, Liber Pater, and Libera (equated at some time with Demeter, Dionysos, and Kore: Dion. Hal., <i>Ant</i>. <i>Rom.</i> 6.17.2), usually abbreviated to ‘<i>aedes Cereris</i>’, located close by the *Circus Maximus (e.g., Vitr., <i>De arch.</i> 3.3.5: <i>aedium species ... uti est ad circum Maximum Cereris</i>; Pliny <i>NH</i> 35.154: <i>Cereris aedem ... ad circum Maximum</i>; Tac., <i>Ann.</i> 2.49: <i>Libero Liberaeque et Cereri iuxta circum Maximum</i>) and near the temples of *Flora and *Luna; no physical remains have been identified. Reputed for its image of Ceres, the ‘first bronze image of a divinity at Rome’ (Pliny, <i>NH</i> 34.15), and for the exquisite artworks displayed there (Strabo 8.6.23; Pliny, <i>NH</i> 35.24, 35.154-55), the temple also served as the headquarters of the plebeian aediles and housed their archive, with copies of the Senate’s decrees (Livy 3.55.13). In addition, the temple possessed the <i>asylum Cereris</i>, a place of refuge where bread was distributed to the poor (Varro in <i>Non</i>. 63.1-4 Lindsay; cf. Coarelli, <i>LTUR</i> I, 130). Thus, the Temple of Ceres formed a defining place of plebeian self-identification. The building had a strikingly old-fashioned appearance and Vitruvius (<i>loc. cit.</i>) cites it as the primary example of the Tuscan style soon before it was destroyed by fire in 31 B.C. (Dio Cass. 50.10.3; cf. Strabo 8.6.23: νεωστί, ‘recently’). Remarkably, Augustus only began its rebuilding (along with the nearby Temple of Flora, and the Temple of *Ianus at the *Forum Holitorium; <i>RG</i> 19-21 omits this <i>aedes</i>), and its rededication did not take place before A.D. 17 (Tac., <i>Ann</i>. 2.49: <i>coeptasque ab Augusto dedicavit</i> [<i>Tiberius</i>]), which means that this important sanctuary remained both a ruin and a construction site throughout the Augustan period.</p> <p>The most detailed testimony for the temple’s location comes from Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who describes it as ‘at the end of the Circus Maximus, directly above the starting gates’ (<i>Ant. Rom.</i> 6.94.3: ἐπὶ τοῖς τέρμασι τοῦ μεγίστου τῶν ἱπποδρόμων ὑπὲρ αὐτὰς ... τὰς ἀφέσεις). Therefore its place on the lower slope of the Aventine’s N tip, just above the head of the Circus, is agreed upon (Richardson 80; Coarelli <i>LTUR</i> I, 261). While an index number on our map is certainly justified, the more specific location argued by Coarelli (1988, 105 fig. 20) depends on the disputed course of the *Clivus Publicius, for which we assume — with Coarelli — a hypothetical route on the NE slope of the Aventine.</p>